Background

It has been accepted that housing is a human right since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Such right is included in Article 56 of Republic of Turkey Constitution as "Everybody has the right to live in a healthy and balanced environment" and in Article 57 as "Our State shall take measures to meet the housing need within the framework of a plan to observe the characteristics and environmental condition of the cities".

The Mass Housing Law passed to this end is a framework law defining the fundamental principles, which give direction to the solution of the housing problem in Turkey, particularly on the subjects of organization and funding. The Law is provision of public supports to meet the housing requirements of the country and fulfilling of necessary service at the hand of an administration organized to this end.

TOKİ, which is one of the leader institutions of Turkey in terms of dealing with housing and settlement issues, has acquired essential knowledge and experience on developing different finance models regarding housing production throughout its 30 year-activity period. For its mass housing projects produced on its own lands, TOKİ has the target group of low and middle-income families, who are not able to own housing units within the existing market conditions in the country.

TOKİ has been effective in developing housing technology and housing finance in Turkey between 1984 and 2002, total of 43 thousand 145 houses were produced and credit support was provided for 940 thousand houses within 19 years.

In 2001, Housing Development Fund was removed along with some other funds. On elimination of the Housing Development Fund, the articles regarding the incomes, expenditures, duties, authorities and responsibilities of the Administration included within the Housing Development Law have been re-regulated.

The primary income of the Administration consist of revenues from the sales of houses and land, loan reimbursements, interest incomes, subsidy allocated with the budget laws and fees for departure to a foreign country, and the service fee amounts collectable from concerned entities and organizations between 3-10% of the construction cost of the constructions made in the name of government agencies.

The Emergency Action Plan for Housing and Urban Development is passed on January 1, 2003, setting a five-year goal of 250,000 housing units to be built through renovation, transformation and production of quality housing, by the end of 2007. TOKİ aimed to reach the target of starting the constructions of 500 thousand housing units (in cumulative), with their social facilities, in the first period of 2011 and TOKİ has succeeded.

The number of housing units started to be constructed as of early December 2018 is 830.960.

A great expansion was achieved via various legal regulations and arrangements in public management made as of 2003 within the framework of TOKİ's field of duty and activity, starting a "planned urbanization and housing leap" so great for the first time in the history of Turkey.

With these regulations, the duties and authorities of TOKİ have been increased with regard to housing production and the bureaucracy has also been diminished accelerating work flow, an efficient structure was formed toward problem solving and production.